Professor John Gurdon

Sir John Gurdon Kt DPhil DSc FRS, Distinguished Group Leader, Nobel Laureate in Physiology or Medicine 2012. Sir John Bertrand Gurdon is a developmental biologist currently at the Gurdon Institute at the Zoology Department of Cambridge University. He is best known for his pioneering research in nuclear transplantation and cloning. He was awarded the Lasker Award in 2009. In 2012, he and Shinya Yamanaka were awarded the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine for the discovery that mature cells can be converted to stem cells. Sir John Gurdon successfully cloned a frog using intact nuclei from the somatic cells of a Xenopus tadpole in 1958 when he was working at the University of Oxford. This work was an important extension of work of Briggs and King in 1952 on transplanting nuclei from embryonic blastula cells and the successful induction of polyploidy in the stickleback, Gasterosteus aculatus, in 1956 by Har Swarup reported in Nature. Gurdon’s experiments captured the attention of the scientific community and the tools and techniques he developed for nuclear transfer are still used today. Gurdon and colleagues also pioneered the use of Xenopus (genus of highly aquatic frog) eggs and oocytes to translate microinjected messenger RNA molecules, a technique which has been widely used to identify the proteins encoded and to study their function. In 2004, the Wellcome Trust/Cancer Research UK Institute for Cell Biology and Cancer was renamed the Gurdon Institute in his honour. He has also received numerous awards, medals and honorary degrees. In 2005, he was elected as an Honorary Member of the American Association of Anatomists, and and in 2014 delivered the Harveian Oration at the Royal College of Physicians. Sir John Gurdon’s research interest is to study how to make cell reprogramming more efficiently. His team’s research aim is to characterise the fine details of cell reprogramming: how the oocyte reprogrammes a cell nucleus, and what mechanisms ensure the remarkable stability of normal cell differentiation and its resistance to reprogramming by eggs. John Gurdon爵士,获2012年生理学与医学研究诺贝尔奖。 Gurdon爵士目前是剑桥大学动物学系格登研究所的生理及医学研究专家,主要从事细胞核移植和克隆研究。2009年获拉斯克基础医学奖,2012年和日本人山中伸弥因细胞核重新编程研究获得诺贝尔生理学或医学奖。 Gurdon爵士早于1958年在牛津大学研究期间就成功运用现在广为所知的克隆技术,成功通过体细胞核移植克隆出非洲瓜蟾。他的研究备受科学界关注,其细胞核移植工具及技术、瓜蟾卵母细胞用于基因研究的模式至今仍广泛运用。2004年,英国癌症研究中心、细胞生物与癌细胞研究院重命名为Gurdon研究院来表彰他的荣誉。2005年他被推举为美国解剖学学会荣誉会员,2014年在伦敦皇家内科医学院致辞。 Gurdon爵士的主要研究领域是如何令细胞重新编程更有效率。他的团队的研究目标是描述细胞重编程的细节:卵母细胞如何重编程细胞核,什么机制确保正常细胞分化的显著稳定性,以及它对卵细胞重编程的抵抗力。